IFETC Short Courses will be offered in blocks of parallel sessions. AM Short Courses will be held from 8 AM - 12 PM and PM Short Courses from 1 PM - 5 PM on August 8, 2021.

AM Course 1 - Printed Electronics – Materials, Processes and Devices Presented by OE-A

Moderator: Jan Krausmann (OE-A)

Presentation 1: Organic and inorganic printable electronics materials
Instructor: Antonio Facchetti (Northwestern University/Flexterra)

In this presentation I will report the most important classes of materials used for the fabrication of opto-electronic devices. Thus, I will start very briefly describing the most common electronic devices such as transistors, diodes, and solar cells. Next, I will describe Next, materials such as the semiconductors, conductors, dielectrics, and other corollary materials will be discussed. Particularly I will focus on the basic chemical structural requirements necessary to achieve the desired electronic or photonic properties. Emphasis will be given to the materials that can be processed by solution methodologies, such as spin-coating, slot-die, ink-jet printing, screen printing, and gravure printing with example of opto-electronic devices achieved by them. I will concluded with the major challenges and opportunities that this research is facing.

Antonio Facchetti is a co-founder and currently the Chief Technology Officer of Flexterra Corporation. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Northwester University. He has published more than 520 research articles, 14 book chapters, and holds more than 120 patents (h-index 108). He received the ACS Award for Creative Invention, the Giulio Natta Gold Medal of the Italian Chemical Society, the team IDTechEx Printed Electronics Europe Award, the corporate Flextech Award. He is a Fellow of the European Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Inventors, MRS, AAAS, PMSE, Kavli, and RSC Fellow. He was selected among the "TOP 100 MATERIALS SCIENTISTS OF THE PAST DECADE (2000-2010)" and recognized as a Highly Cited Scientist by Thomson Reuters.

Presentation 2: Flexible Hybrid Electronics Manufacture – An Overview
Instructor: Simon Johnson (Centre for Process Innovation)

This short tutorial will present an overview of the techniques and technologies used in the manufacture of flexible hybrid electronic (FHE) circuits. The fundamentals of the technologies will be discussed along with the assembly techniques and we will also consider the types of circuits that can be built with FHE. The benefits of the circuit form will be considered along with the challenges and some solutions. Roll to Roll manufacture of electronics will be discussed to show the approach to scale up for industrial applications. Some case studies will also be used to illustrate many aspects of this exciting technology.

Dr Simon Johnson is the Chief Technologist within Electronics at the Centre for Process Innovation in the UK. In his current role Simon acts as a knowledge expert in Printable and Flexible Electronics, supporting strategic and development activities in the business. While at CPI Simon has lead the development of processes for the assembly of hybrid flexible electronic systems including printed sensors, wireless sensor systems and roll to roll circuit design and assembly. In previous roles as an academic at the University of Durham and also in industry, Simon has worked in many aspects of electronics from CMOS IC design and development to electronic systems and software development.

Presentation 3: Printed Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Diagnostics
Instructor: Giorgio Mutinati (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology)

The decentralization of the health care system, driven by the demographic change, creates a strong demand for sustainable high volume and low-cost biosensors that enable molecular diagnostics outside of laboratories. At present, non-invasive point-of-care rapid tests are mostly available in the form of single-use test strips based on a colorimetric readout. The reading of these test strips is strongly influenced by subjective visual perception and the results are, therefore, hardly reproducible and only qualitative. An important exception are electrochemical glucose sensors, which are successfully on the market for several years now. However, they require the diabetic patients to prick their finger and are not used for continuous glucose monitoring. Printing technologies play a key role to overcome these limitations by enabling: i) the use of cost-effective substrates and materials, ii) the effective manufacturing of biosensors using roll-to-roll processes, iii) the use of digital technologies such as inkjet printing to print specifically formulated bio-inks for the sensor surface functionalization, iv) the integration of discrete microchip and printed components such as antennas and batteries for the processing and wireless transfer of measurement data. Making use of these possibilities, the printed biosensors, which are in development now, can be used either as single- use quantitative tests or as monitoring device integrated in wearables. This short course will give an overview about the printed biosensors on the market and in development. Particular attention will be given to the novel applications, the involved printing technologies and the development work done on this topic at AIT Austrian Institute of Technology.

Giorgio C. MUTINATI, PhD, after his degree in physics, specialized in micro- and nanotechnology and solid state electronics. After seven years at the R&D departments of semiconductor industries, he joined AIT Austrian Institute of Technology in 2010. His research activities as senior research engineer and project manager focus on printing technologies for the realization of electrochemical biosensors.also in industry, Simon has worked in many aspects of electronics from CMOS IC design and development to electronic systems and software development.

AM Course 2 - Printed Electronics for Automotive Applications Presented by OE-A

Moderator: Klaus Hecker (OE-A)

Presentation #1: Intelligent molded structures – IMSE Technology, Applications & Verification
Instructor: Antti Keränen (TactoTek)

Injection Molded Structural Electronics (IMSE®), manufacturing technology developed and commercialized by TactoTek, revolutionizes the way electronic parts are designed and manufactured. IMSE integrates printed electronics and electronic components inside 3D injection molded plastic parts. Embedding functionality such as lighting, controls and antennas within 3D-shaped surface structures significantly reduces the thickness, weight and number of parts and thus simplifies the assembly. It also brings unique design opportunities by enabling new form factors with different surface materials such as wood, plastic and other materials for next generation human-machine interfaces. In the first part of the short course, IMSE manufacturing technology will be introduced. IMSE manufacturing technology consists of four core manufacturing processes: printing of graphic inks and circuitry, surface mounting of electronic components, high pressure forming and injection molding. In this part, also the real-life applications of IMSE are presented. In the second part, the focus is to give an overview of IMSE Technology verification process which includes processes for functional inks, electronic components and surface mounting adhesives. After individual verification processes, the entire IMSE material stack is verified through Material Stack Platform (MSP). In MSP, the mechanical and electrical functionality, manufacturability and lifetime reliability of entire material stacks used in IMSE structures are ensured. In the third part advances of functional ink process development and verification including conductive inks and dielectrics for IMSE will be presented more in detail. TactoTek is collaborating closely with the globally leading material suppliers to co-develop optimized functional inks for 3D smart molded structures. The functional materials are evaluated e.g. in terms of conductivity, elongation and compatibility with other materials in all stages of IMSE core processes. The results of functional ink verification are presented.

Antti Keräneni is the technology mastermind behind TactoTek structural electronics. His main responsibilities are developing and maintaining the IP portfolio, directing R&D innovation activities, and communicating the company technology vision and practical applications to the community. Antti has been a major contributor to the technology of in-mold electronics since 2005, when he joined the VTT printed electronics team. He is an Adjunct Professor of theoretical physics at the University of Oulu where he earned his PhD in 2002. Subsequently, he worked as a nuclear scientist at INFN, Italy, and as a Software Specialist for e.g. Nokia.

Presentation #2: IMSE Technology for Smart Molded Structures - Technology Verification
Instructor: Outi Rusanen (TactoTek)

This short course is a continuation to Dr. Antti Keränen’s short course on IMSE Technology. It explains why and how the company verifies electronics components and surface mounting adhesives. It has also results from reliability testing. The short course is divided into three parts. The first part describes the verification process, electrical component and surface mounting adhesive verification are discussed in more detail. Many of the packages and surface mounting adhesives, optimized for conventional electronics, can be used with IMSE technology. However, their suitability needs to be verified because conventional electronics does not include the temperature and pressure exposures from thermoforming and injection molding processes. One of the IMSE application areas is automotive and the OEMs have stringent reliability requirements. Before IMSE product validation in automotive use cases, TactoTek has already verified the technology. The second explains the reliability test definition for technology verification. The third part shows results from IMSE verification and product validation testing. The results are from technology verification platforms as well as from demonstrator and customer products. We present reliability testing results together with root cause analysis.

Dr. Outi Rusanen received her MSc, Lic. Sc. and D. Sc (Tech.) degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Oulu, Finland in 1988, 1998 and 2000, respectively. She currently works as Principal Interconnection Specialist in the Research and Development Team at TactoTek. Dr Rusanen has 30 years’ experience with electronics interconnections and reliability. She has previously worked at Huawei Finland, Nokia Mobile Phones and Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Dr Rusanen has co-authored about 60 journal and conference papers.

Presentation #3: Fundamentals of Printed Hybrid Electronics for Automotive Applications
Instructor: Edsger Smits (Holst Centre)

Printed hybrid electronics is a well-established technology in the automotive domain. It is used for realizing sensors, lighting solutions, as well as human machine interfaces. There is no shortage of hybrid printed electronics concept ideas and product prototypes. The production capability is growing as the technology enables differentiating products in non-traditional form factors. In this short course, I will review the basic concepts of printed hybrid electronics providing their advantages but also their challenges. Available manufacturing techniques include printing, component assembly, post-processing steps, product integration steps and characterisation methods will be discussed. After providing the basis regarding printed hybrid electronics, the focus will shift towards the principles with which sensors can be realized using printed electronics. Finally applications, wherein the developed technologies have been used, will be reviewed.

Edsger Smits received his Ph.D. from the University of Groningen in the field of organic electronics. In 2009, he joined the Holst Centre focusing oxide based electronics and the development of flexible sensors. Currently he is a program manager responsible for the printed sensors activities. Topics of interests include laser processing, hybrid integration, printed and stretchable electronics.

Presentation #4: Organic LCD : Shaping automotive interiors with surface integrated displays
Instructor: Joffrey Dury (FlexEnable)

Increased vehicle automation and connectivity requires more and larger displays which conform to the curved surfaces of the car. Organic LCD meets these requirements by using the traditional LCD architecture which is proven for automotive-grade reliability and brightness but on an organic backplane. In this short course we will summarise the requirements and applications for curved displays in automotive, explain the attributes of conformable OLCD, including high reliability even at high brightness, or very high dynamic range with a dual cell approach enabled by the extreme thinness of the substrate, all whilst retaining its ability to conform to non-flat surfaces. The OLCD manufacturing process, and key enabling organic semiconductor TFT materials (FlexiOMTM), which exceed the performance of the amorphous silicon TFTs that they replace, will also be explained, and how the process can be implemented in existing display fabs. Finally, we will discuss how flexible liquid crystal cells also allow other surfaces in the car to be activated, including colour-neutral, rapidly switchable smart window films that can be biaxially conformed to the glazing.

Joffrey Dury is a Senior Engineer, working in FlexEnable’s process team. He has been working for 7 years on OTFT materials and processes and technology transfer taking processes from lab to fab, including working for 18 months in a FPD fab in China to support the transfer of FlexEnable OLCD technology to manufacturing. His most recent focus has been on OTFT process development.

PM Course 1 - Flextronics: A Hard Barrier for Flexible Teaching?

Instructor: Savas Kaya (Ohio University)

As it becomes more accessible and mainstream, flexible electronic devices and integrated systems (or flextronics) technologies present unique challenges for instructors and tremendous opportunities of learning for students on a broad spectrum of engineering subjects. On the one hand lies the significant challenges of arranging, simplifying and presenting very diverse range of properties related to materials (nano-inks, carbon nano-structures, conductive polymers, organic semiconductors, metal-oxide thin-films), substrates (polymers, papers, textile and composites), printing technologies (laser, screen, flexographic, gravure, inkjet, aerosol Jet) and devices (RLC passives, thin-film transistors, antennas, solar cells, OLEDs & displays, supercapacitors, batteries and sensors) as well as virtually unlimited range of applications. On the other hand is the tremendous learning opportunities in reviewing scientific fundamentals, integrated device design and exploring creative solutions with flexible technologies for seniors and graduate students that cannot be found easily in such a comprehensive fashion. On either front, there is a sheer volume of material to be explored and contextualized, which present challenges for all involved. In this tutorial session, we will describe and analyze some of these challenges and opportunities for building a successful course in Flextronics education and propose an example course syllabus based on the best practices as surveyed from reputable institutions around the world. The tutorial is intended for both researchers and educators planning to develop a course in Flextronics as well as students who wishes to develop a wholesome overview of flexible electronics from an educator’s perspective.

Savas Kaya (SM'07) received the M.Phil. degree from the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K., in 1994, with a focus on polarization insensitive liquid crystal switches and the Ph.D. degree from the Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, U.K., in 1998, with a focus on strained Si quantum wells on vicinal substrates. He was a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Glasgow between 1998 and 2001, carrying out research in transport and scaling in Si/SiGe MOSFETs, and fluctuation phenomena in decanano MOSFETs. He is currently a professor with the Russ College of Engineering at Ohio University, Athens. Besides, flexible electronics and printed sensors, his other interests include transport theory, device modeling and process integration, nanofabrication, nanostructures and nanosensors for flexible electronics integration.

PM Course 2 - Additive Manufacturing of Geometrically-Complex Electronics and Electromagnetics

Instructor: Eric MacDonald (Additive Printing)

3D printing has been historically relegated to fabricating conceptual models and prototypes; however, increasingly, research is now focusing on fabricating functional end-use products. As patents for 3D printing expire, new low-cost desktop systems are being adopted more widely and this trend is leading to a diversity of new products, processes and available materials. However, currently the technology is generally confined to fabricating single material static structures. For additively manufactured products to be economically meaningful, additional functionalities are required to be incorporated in terms of electronic, electromechanical, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, chemical and optical content. By interrupting the printing processes and employing complementary manufacturing, additional functional content can be included in mass-customized complex structures.

The two-hour short course will provide a comprehensive overview of the full taxonomy of additive manufacturing processes as defined by the ISO/ASTM 52900 standard. Each of the seven additive manufacturing processes will be described in terms of both operation and in the context of benefits and challenges for electronics and electromagnetics. A diversity of case studies will be provided highlighting the profound benefits of fabricating electronics with the design freedom, mass customization and geometrical-complexity that additive manufacturing brings to bear.

Eric MacDonald, Ph.D. is a professor of mechanical at the University of Texas at El Paso and engaged in the W.M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation. Dr. MacDonald received his doctoral (2002) degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. He worked in industry for 12 years at IBM and Motorola and subsequently co-founded a start-up specializing in CAD software and the startup was acquired by a firm in Silicon Valley. Dr. MacDonald held faculty fellowships at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, US Navy Research and was awarded a US State Department Fulbright Fellowship in South America. His research interests include 3D printed multi-functional applications and process monitoring in additive manufacturing with instrumentation and computer vision for improved quality and yield. As a co-founding editor of the Elsevier journal Additive Manufacturing, MacDonald has help direct the journal to have the highest impact factor among all academic journals worldwide in manufacturing. Recent projects include 3D printing of structures such as nano satellites with structurally-embedded electronics (one of which was launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2013 and a replica of which was on display at the London Museum of Science). He has over 100 peer-reviewed publications, dozens of patents (one of which was licensed by Sony and Toshiba from IBM). He is a member of ASME, ASEE, senior member of IEEE and a registered Professional Engineer in the USA state of Texas.